The Constitution also calls for a separation of powers and limited suffrage. Providence, RI 02912 The Aftermath of August 10 War with Austria. After some successful battles, the French fleet is destroyed by British troops in August. The legislature of France from October 1, 1791, to September 20, 1792, during the years of the French Revolution. National Convention: A single-chamber assembly in France from September 20, 1792, to October 26, 1795, during the French Revolution. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximilien_Robespierre, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_Commune, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Execution_of_Louis_XVI, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armoire_de_fer, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trial_of_Louis_XVI, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legislative_Assembly_(France), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10_August_(French_Revolution), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_First_Coalition, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Antoinette, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_France, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hinrichtung_Ludwig_des_XVI.png, https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-worldhistory/. On January 21, 1793, the former Louis XVI, now simply named Citoyen Louis Capet (Citizen Louis Capet), was executed by guillotine. The Insurrection of August 10, 1792, led to the creation of the National Convention, elected by universal male suffrage and charged with writing a new constitution. The years of 1793-1794 mark the Reign of Terror, a period of mass executions directed by the Montagnards' Committee of Public Safety and the Revolutionary Tribunal in an attempt to rid France of counterrevolutionaries. March 1792. ... Constitution of September 1791. The new French Republican Calendar discarded all Christian reference points and calculated time from the Republic's first full day after the monarchy, 22 September 1792, the first day of Year One. The storming of the Tuileries Palace by the National Guard of the insurrectional Paris Commune and revolutionary fédérés (federates) from Marseilles and Brittany resulted in the fall of the French monarchy. She was guillotined on October 16, 1793. The French Revolution (French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) began in May 1789 when the Ancien Régime was abolished in favour of a constitutional monarchy.Its replacement in September 1792 by the First French Republic led to the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793, and an extended period of political turmoil. In the course of 1793, the Holy Roman Empire, the kings of Portugal and Naples, and the Grand-Duke of Tuscany declared war against France. At their first meeting, the Convention decides to try King Louis XVI for treason, finds him guilty, and executes him on January 21, 1793. King Louis XVI and the royal family took shelter with the Legislative Assembly, which was suspended. Alternative Title: Georges-Jacques Danton Georges Danton, in full Georges-Jacques Danton, (born October 26, 1759, Arcis-sur-Aube, France—died April 5, 1794, Paris), French Revolutionary leader and orator, often credited as the chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic (September 21, 1792). September 2-6th: The September Massacres in Paris result in around 1,200 deaths. The Coup D'Etat of Fructidor, September 1797 [Phipps, Ramsay Weston] on Amazon.com. 1949 September - The September Massacres occur between September 2 - 7. On July 27, 1794, Robespierre, a major leader of the Reign of Terror, is overthrown and executed, but the revered reputation of the French Revolution is drastically diminished throughout Europe. Given overwhelming evidence of Louis’s collusion with the invaders during the ongoing war with Austria and Prussia, the verdict was a foregone conclusion. Redefining the organization of the French government, citizenship and the limits to the powers of government, the National Assembly set out to represent the interests of the general will. The civic oath is: I swear to be faithful to the nation, to the law, and to the King, and to maintain with all my power the Constitution of the kingdom, decreed by the National Constituent Assembly in the years 1789, 1790, and 1791. The First Republic lastit till the declaration o the First French Empire in 1804 unner Napoleon I. (However, the Revolutionary Calendar was not introduced until 24 November 1793. She was guillotined on October 16, 1793. Box A France declared war against Britain and the Netherlands on February 1, 1793, and soon afterwards against Spain. 23 deputies abstained for various reasons, several because they felt they had been elected to make laws rather than to judge. Despite the domestic chaos plaguing France, the government insists on a military draft and preparation for international war. French Studies and The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the Absolute Monarchy of the Ancien Régime. Though 100 men are killed, Napoleon succeeds in controlling the mob, and is soon given command of the French army. TheFrench Revolutionary Army was the armed forces of the First French Republic and French Consulate from 1791 to 1802, founded after the French Revolution that created a new republican government. Most of the pieces of correspondence in the cabinet involved ministers of Louis XVI, but others involved most of the big players of the Revolution. The first French Republic was proclaimed. In April 1793, members of the Montagnards went on to establish the Committee of Public Safety under Robespierre, which would be responsible for the Terror (September 5, 1793 – July 28, 1794), the bloodiest and one of the most controversial phases of the French Revolution. This situation became an international point of focus, and some of the debates from … The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted on 26 August 1789 eventually became the preamble of the constitution adopted on 3 September 1791. Upon Father Edgeworth’s advice, he avoided a farewell scene with his family. 26 deputies were absent from the vote, most on official business. The trial began on December 3. 1791-92 Constitutional Monarchy: Constitution drafted by National Assembly (3rd Estate plus supporters from 1st & 2cd) 1793 execution of Louis XIII as Citizen Capet III. The former Louis XVI, now simply named Citoyen Louis Capet (Citizen Louis Capet), was executed by guillotine. According to the revised Constitution, the Directory holds all executive power, and one of the five men is to be replaced each year. Several factions formed in response to this, including the Jacobins, who completely disagreed with the monarchy and thought the Revolution should move forward. Thus, the First Coalition was formed. After many battles on many lands, the French troops are able to draft peace treaties with Austria, Holland, Prussia, and Spain. His royal seal was to go to the Dauphin and his wedding ring to the Queen. A commission was established to examine evidence against him while the Convention’s Legislation Committee considered legal aspects of any future trial. September 20 - The National Convention is established. August 25, 1788. Paris voted overwhelmingly for death, 21 to 3. Following the aftermaths of the Revolution of 1789 and the abolishment of the monarchy, the First Republic of France is established on September 22 of 1792. War of the First Coalition. July 9, 1789. Napoleon signs the Concordat with the Pope in 1801, formalizing the Church's presence in France by allowing the State to appoint bishops. The Consulate (1799-1804) is thus established and Napoleon is later appointed the first consul for life in 1802. The National Convention is made up of the Girondins, who support the bourgeoisie, the Montagnards, who favor a central regime, and the Marais who are positioned in between the two. Across Europe, conservatives were horrified and monarchies called for war against revolutionary France. In an attempt to defend the cause of the revolutionists, and in hopes of restoring the King's powers before his death, both leftist and conservative forces (the Royalists) support the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802) that take place throughout Europe. Years are counted since the establishment of the first French Republic on 22 September 1792. The following day, the Convention’s president Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac presented it with the indictment and decreed the interrogation of Louis XVI. As Napoleon's popularity and ambition soar, he sets out to destroy British troops by invading Egypt in May of 1798. Start studying French Revolution Dates: 1789-1794. Ultimately, 693 deputies voted “yes” for a guilty verdict. 34 voted for death with attached conditions (23 of whom invoked the Mailhe amendment), 2 voted for life imprisonment in irons, 319 voted for imprisonment until the end of the war (to be followed by banishment). In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic (French: République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. These documents, despite the likely gaps and pre-selection showed the duplicity of advisers and ministers—at least those that Louis XVI trusted—who had set up parallel policies. On January 21, 1815 Louis XVI and his wife’s remains were reburied in the Basilica of Saint-Denis where in 1816 his brother, King Louis XVIII, had a funerary monument erected by Edme Gaulle. The Constitution of 1791 National Assembly September 3, 1791 HistoryWiz Primary Source [Preamble] The National Assembly, wishing to establish the French Constitution upon the principles it has just recognized and declared, abolishes irrevocably the institutions which were injurious to liberty and equality of … The First Coalition against France is formed by Great Britain, Holland, Spain, Austria, and Prussia. That day became 1 Vendemiaire of the year 1 of the Republic. In France, the Reign of Terror followed. Louis XVI heard 33 charges. Not a single deputy voted “no,” although 26 attached some condition to their votes. September 30th, 1791. It succeeded the Legislative Assembly and founded the First Republic after the insurrection of August 10, 1792. The vast majority killed are imprisoned royalists and clergymen. The execution of Louis XVI on January 21, 1793, radicalized the French Revolution at home and united European monarchies against revolutionary France. Robespierre voted first and said “The sentiment that led me to call for the abolition of the death penalty is the same that today forces me to demand that it be applied to the tyrant of my country.” Philippe Égalité, formerly the Duke of Orléans and Louis’ own cousin, voted for his execution, a cause of much future bitterness among French monarchists. Center for The King attempted to flee France and raise an army to retake the country from the revolutionaries. 5. Chaos persisted until the National Convention, elected by universal male suffrage and charged with writing a new constitution, met on September 20, 1792, and became the new de facto government of France. In late September, therefore, the first election took place under the rules of the Constitution of 1791. Across Europe, conservatives were horrified and monarchies called for war against revolutionary France. The Assembly's belief in a sovereign nation and in equal repre… September 20th: The Legislative Assembly is dissolved and replaced by the National Convention. Napoleon returns to France and conspires to overthrow the Directory through the coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9-10, 1799). Combatants Haitian Slaves Spanish Empire (1791-1794) First French Republic (1794-1796) First French Republic (1791-1794, 1796-1804) Spanish Empire (1794-1796) Great Britain (1793-98) Rival rebel groups Commanders Toussaint L'ouverture Henri Christophe Napoleon I Donatien de Rochambeau Charles Leclerc Thomas Maitland TheHaitian Revolutionwas a fast-changing military and political arena in … The Constitution of 1791 is also suspended at this time. January, 1789 "What is the Third Estate" by Abbe Sieyes is published. Thousands of people are executed, and over 200,000 arrests are made during the two years of massive uprising. The trial began on December 3. Constitutional monarchy that governed France from 3 September 1791 until 21 September 1792, when this constitutional monarchy was succeeded by the First Republic. The "Constitution de l'an VII" grants him the majority of the power and declares him "Premier consul de la République." Louis was to be put to death. At 10 a.m., a carriage with the king arrived at Place de la Révolution and proceeded to a space surrounded by guns and drums and a crowd carrying pikes and bayonets, which had been kept free at the foot of the scaffold. In September 1791, the National Assembly released its much-anticipated Constitution of 1791, which created a constitutional monarchy, or limited monarchy, for France. and 361 voted for death without conditions, just carrying the vote by a marginal majority. September 25, 1791 The deputies of the National Constituent Assembly adopt the first version of the Penal Code (French: Code Pénal), a set of rules governing violations and criminal responsibility. On January 21, 1793, Louis XVI awoke at 5 a.m. and heard his last Mass. 1862: President Abraham Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, declaring all slaves in rebel states free as of Jan. 1, 1863. A commission was established to examine evidence against the King while the Convention’s Legislation Committee considered legal aspects of any future trial. Brown University Library French Revolution Timeline. The execution of Louis XVI united all European governments, including Spain, Naples, and the Netherlands, against the Revolution. Domestically, France continues to suffer poor economic conditions, and the Directory is plagued by corruption. The next day the Convention abolished the monarchy and declared a republic. A new revolutionary calendar is adopted by the National Convention which sets 1792 as the first year (first year of the republic) and has 14 months instead of 12 based on non-Christian times of the year. The army was commanded by NCOs that were made generals after the revolution, and its soldiers were conscripts from across France. Tennis Court Oath. The National Convention and the French Republic. Minister of the Armies) is the official in charge of the Ministry of the Armed Forces in the Government of the French Republic, charged with running the French Armed Forces.. In October of 1795, France establishes the new Directory consisting of five men who are chosen by the new legislature, the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients. This document, unwillingly signed by King Louis XVI, created a constitutional monarchy in France. On 3 September 1791, the National Constituent Assembly forced king Louis XVI to accept the French Constitution of 1791, thus turning the absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. It was the first French assembly elected by universal male suffrage, without distinctions of class. PLAY. September 22 - The First French Republic is founded. The following day, the Convention’s president Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac presented it with the indictment and decreed the interrogation of Louis XVI. After being kept under what was essentially "house arrest," King Louis XVI and his family made an escape attempt from the Tuileries Palace to Varennes in 1791. May 5, 1789. September 22nd, 1792. That day became 1 Vendemiaire of the year I of the Republic. Most Montagnards (radical republicans) favored judgement and execution, while the Girondins (moderate republicans) were divided concerning Louis’s fate. The Declaration offered sweeping generalizations about rights, liberty, and sovereignty. Napoleon launches his Italian Campaign, surprises Austrian troops and attacks successfully, proving to be a strong and influential leader. February 1st, 1793. France became a republic in September 1792 and remained one until 1804 – although the form of the government changed several times. Louis XVI's execution catalyses extreme resistance throughout much of Europe. It was even suggested that Mailhe had been paid, perhaps by Spanish gold. Comparative Literature Departments, Developed & hosted by The Convention’s unanimous declaration of a French Republic on September 21, 1792, left open the fate of the King. There were 721 voters in total. Digital Scholarship https://www.thoughtco.com/french-revolution-timeline-1789-91-1221888 September 21st: The first session of the National Convention votes unanimously to abolish the monarchy. Estates-General meets for the first time in 100 years. 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