This discovery had many consequences, one of which was that scientists could paste snipped DNA back together in new combinations. 2 Much of his research was directly related to evolution, and for this reason his conclusions in this area are of considerable interest. Born on June 3, 1929, in Switzerland, Werner Arber earned his Ph.D. in biophysics from the University of Geneva in 1958. (1962) 5, 18-36 Host Speciticity of DNA Produced by Escherichia Coli L Host controlled modification of bacteriophage ~, WERNER ARBER AI~D DAISY DUSSOIX Biophysic8 Laboratory, University of Genera, Switzerland ( Received 23 January 1962) Lambda bacteriophage particles carry a "host specificity" determined by the baeterial strains on whieh they were produced. It meant that genes from any sources in nature could be taken out of a cell in a laboratory setting and swapped and spliced beside one another. 1973. 1973 The first experiment on recombinant DNA cloning was performed by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen. In 1950, Luria moved to the University of Illinois, Urbana, where one of his employees, a woman named Mary Human, continued to work on the T2 mystery. They went back to the lab on the West Coast and tried the experiment using bacterial chromosomes from E. coli. It’s a spontaneous process. Another bacterial strain had resistance to antibiotic B. It was 1973. And also for the first time, even a Nobel laureate – the world-famous Swiss microbiologist Werner Arber – is taking up the cudgels for this controversial discovery. Arber remains active in science; he heads the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and has a keen interest in understanding evolution's molecular drivers, one of which—horizontal gene transfer—is a direct descendent of his work on phage transduction. They had to prove that these chromosomes had been glued together, and so they took some naive bacteria that didn’t have any bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and they put this new chromosome in with them. With the first aspect of this hypothesis—that there existed an enzyme that chopped up viruses—shortly after Arber published his hypothesis, Hamilton Smith and a team at Johns Hopkins University isolated and described the chopping enzyme from bacteria. If a restriction enzyme cut DNA wherever there was a sequence AATT, if you have a big piece of DNA, wherever there’s an AATT, it’ll cut. Bacterial viruses are also called bacteriophages. He proposed the idea for how these enzymes work, which was verified by American microbiologist Hamilton Smith. He noticed that a phage called T2 didn’t seem to grow inside and kill certain mutant strains of Escherichia coli. Some mutant bacteria are unable to transfer sugars to phage cytosines, and so the phages grown in these bacteria come out “sour” instead of “sweet,” as Luria wrote. The first method that was employed was the use of restriction enzymes to digest the unknown plasmid. I prepared a stock of lambda, which was heavily loaded with 32 P—“suicide” levels. The second aspect of Arber’s hypothesis was that the host cell modifies itself to make itself resistant. Werner Arber, (born June 3, 1929, Gränichen, Switz. Watch it now, on The Great Courses Plus. Soon, biologists realized that restriction enzymes would let them cut any kind of DNA, not just phage genomes. 1. He earned a medical degree in Torino, Italy, but decided he preferred performing research over practicing medicine. Revel earned her PhD with MIT Biology’s Boris Magasanik before becoming Luria’s research associate. And, indeed, Arber, in his own laboratory in Switzerland, characterized this system that modifies its own DNA. They had created genetically functional recombinant DNA, the recombination of the two different genomes. In the early 1950s, a woman named Mary Human found the first evidence of a group of proteins called restriction enzymes — a discovery that would reverberate throughout the research community for decades. Discovery of endonucleases or DNA "cutting" enzymes was done by Stewart Linn and Werner Arber. 1976. And, indeed, these viruses had mutations in their DNA that altered the DNA base sequence so that it no longer had the site that the restriction enzyme recognized, and so it didn’t cut anymore. The cell is dead, and hundreds of virus particles are released. Later, Bertani’s own research associate, Werner Arber, went on to discover that bacteria can mark the DNA of phages that replicate within them. The virus particle with its protein and DNA lands on the outside of the bacterial cell, its host. They eat—“phage” comes from eat—bacteria. Fortunately, Luria had a deputy to help him run his lab while he was revamping MIT Biology and trying to stop the war. Luria was renowned for his ability to predict which direction biology would move, so the Institute wanted him to fill this role. At the time, Human and Luria couldn’t explain what was happening to T2 in these mutant bacteria. Werner Arber (2007) Darwinian evolution as understood by scientists of the 21st century Abstract After a short reminder of the historical development of evolutionary biology, elements to a molecular theory of Darwinien evolution will be presented. Restriction enzymes recognize these sweet-natured phages as foreign, and destroy them. The third aspect of his hypothesis was that successful virus strains must mutate so they’re no longer recognizable. So even physicists were catching the biology bug. Immediately after its preparation, the phage stock was carefully purified from the radioactive medium and then used for a one-cycle growth in a nonmodifying host in nonradioactive medium. Discovery of endonucleases or DNA “cutting” enzymes was done by Stewart Linn and Werner Arber. Werner Arber was born in Switzerland in 1929 and graduated from one of the world’s great universities, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, in Zurich. Early in the 2oth century, it was recognized that a protein will fold in the same way it does inside the cell as if you put the protein in water. When marked phages try to enter new bacteria, the marks can signal that the phages are foreign invaders, allowing the new bacteria to kill the phages. I retired as a senior researcher at the office. Author information: (1)Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 70, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland. Discovery of endonucleases or DNA "cutting" enzymes was done by Stewart Linn and Werner Arber. Since 1963 he has been interested in chemical warfare and biological defense and arms control. This is a transcript from the video series Understanding Genetics: DNA, Genes, and Their Real-World Applications. As researchers learned more about restriction enzymes, they realized that they can work in all sorts of ways. Dimitri Papadopoulos, Dominique Schneider, Jessica Meier-Eiss, Werner Arber, Richard E. Lenski, Michel Blot Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Mar 1999, 96 (7) 3807-3812; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.96.7.3807 Isolation … ), Swiss microbiologist, corecipient with Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Othanel Smith of the United States of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for 1978. Today, after decades of work, scientists have used restriction enzymes to study genetic variations in humans, find sequences that cause disease, identify relationships between people, and solve crimes. The clones can also be manipulated and mutated in vitroto alter the expression and function of the protein. We report here experiments carried out with nonpathogenic Escherichia coli bacterial strains and their phages. The cell is mostly water, so if you take a protein and you put it in water, it’ll fold the same way. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1978/arber/biographical This has mainly become possible by introducing new research strategies including the experimental exploration of biologically active molecules and their interactions, in using among In his career Arber was a professor at several universities, including the University of Southern California and the University of Basel. This Italian native fled Europe to escape Nazis, was briefly blacklisted by the NIH presumably because of his vocal opposition to American foreign policy, and suffered from depression despite his outwardly cheery appearance. With this attitude, she led the scientists who figured out the mystery of the mutant bacteria that changed the T2 phage. Among his biggest achievements was recruiting and employing many forward-thinking scientists who built MIT Biology into the department it is today. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/werner-arber-7428.php Learn more about the history of genetics and the three major unifying ideas in biological science, Arber’s professors must have been really impressed with him because they hired him in 1960 as a junior professor at the university. T2 always seemed to act the same in Shigella as it did in E. coli, so she didn’t expect the switch to matter. 1977. 1973. One bacterium had resistance to antibiotic A. The discovery of restriction enzymes is credited to Swiss scientist Werner Arber in the 1960′s. The untidy experiment that ... Later, Bertani’s own research associate, Werner Arber, went on to discover that bacteria can mark the DNA of phages that replicate within them. The first experiment on recombinant DNA cloning was performed by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen. Indeed, Luria’s life was far from being a tidy package. In 1970 Smith published two papers detailing the discovery of the first restriction enzyme and explained how they worked. Born on June 3, 1929, in Switzerland, Werner Arber earned his Ph.D. in biophysics from the University of Geneva in 1958. 9). first JMB [Journal of Molecular Biology] paper on restriction and modification in. They isolated chromosomes from both of these, put them in a test tube, and just as they had planned in the restaurant, they cut the chromosomes open with restriction enzymes and glued the two chromosomes together using this third enzyme. Genetics vs. He credits Luria for encouraging him to go down this path — one that led him to become a Nobel Laureate himself. Certain bacteria mark phage DNA by replacing one of the bases that make up the genetic code, called cytosine, with a modified version called 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. You can study proteins outside of the cell; you can study enzymes in a test tube. 1960s when Werner Arber and co-workers were able to show that host-specific modifications was carried on the phage DNA (3), and that restric-tion was associated with degradation of the phage DNA (4). In the same way, you can study restriction enzymes in a test tube. Simultaneously, Matt Meselson and Bob Yuan also isolated a restriction enzyme from Escherichia coli K ( 10 ). Bacteria can also mark their own DNA to prevent restriction enzymes from cutting it, allowing certain kinds of restriction enzymes to cut naked DNA sequences in the genomes of invading phages. Genetic engineering promises to increase the taste and nutritional value of food along with decreasing its susceptibility to drought and other pests. “It often pays to do somewhat untidy experiments, provided one is aware of the element of untidiness,” he wrote. Because it only cut DNA at certain sequences—namely, a sequence that was present in the bacteriophage—they called it a restriction endonuclease or a restriction enzyme; it cuts DNA where there is a certain sequence present. In 1970 Smith published two papers detailing the discovery of the first restriction enzyme and explained how they worked. Luria went about his career, still carrying this mystery with him. As a graduate student at the University of Geneva in the 1950s, he studied with a physics professor, and he watched this physics professor get converted from doing pure physics to doing biophysics, being interested in genetics. Once isolated, molecular clones can be used to generate many copies of the DNA for analysis of the gene sequence, and/or to express the resulting protein for the study or utilization of the protein’s function. Genetic engineering involves inserting genetic material into the DNA of plants or genomes of other species. Werner Arber was born in Gränichen, Switzerland, on June 3, 1929. But the untidy experiment Luria referred to in his Scientific American article related to a lesser-known aspect of his lab’s phage work: restriction enzymes, which cut DNA at specific places. J. Mol. Werner Arber Hamilton O. Smith Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty. Third, virus strains that are successful in infection must have mutations in DNA that make them resistant to the chopping enzyme. It seemed that T2 could only reproduce once in the particular mutant strain of E. coli that Human was studying, but when she moved T2 from these mutant E. coli to Shigella, it restored the virus’ ability to reproduce. 1977. Well, at Stanford University, another scientist had discovered that there is an enzyme that would catalyze just that. Arber studied bacterial viruses. Sharp joined a center that already included David Baltimore, as well as current MIT Biology professors Nancy Hopkins and Robert Weinberg, all of whom have made huge contributions to cancer research. One example is plants where genetic engineering has been done to increase the nutritional content, strength, and resistance to growth inhibitors. At the time, most research into viruses focused on the phages that Luria studied, but Baltimore wanted to break new ground by studying viruses that infect animals. [email protected] Perusal of a catalogue from Pennsylvania State College (now University) alerted him to the existence of the field of b… molecular experiments study guide by edoug27 includes 42 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. An explanation in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Werner Arber (2015) Insight into the Laws of Nature for Biological Evolution Abstract Both evolutionary biology and genetics have their roots 150 years ago in work with phenotypic variants of plants and animals. This led to the first way of mapping DNA. They fool the bacteria, and they take over. Second, the bacteria have an enzyme that modifies their own DNA to make it resistant. The discovery of restriction enzymes is credited to Swiss scientist Werner Arber in the 1960′s. Both his parents and grandparents were farmers and as a boy he worked in the fields. In 1962, he and his graduate student, Daisy Dussoix, found that bacteria seemed to evade infection by viruses by chopping up the invading virus DNA into fragments. “I asked Luria if he thought it was possible to do molecular biology with animal viruses, and he said, ‘I don’t know, why don’t you find out and tell me?’” Baltimore says. In his career Arber was a professor at several universities, including the University of Southern California and the University of Basel. In 1968, Dr. Werner Arber at the University of Basel, Switzerland and Dr. Hamilton Smith at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, discovered a group of enzymes in bacteria, which when added to any DNA will result in the breakage (hydrolysis] of the sugar-phosphate bond between certain specific nucleotide bases [recognition sites). Arber studied bacterial viruses. Prenatal genetic diagnosis with the help of DNA, was discovered. Arber remains active in science; he heads the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and has a keen interest in understanding evolution's molecular drivers, one of which—horizontal gene transfer—is a direct descendent of his work on phage transduction. Human and Luria concluded that something about the mutant E. coli changed the T2, and limited the kinds of bacteria in which it could grow. Arber has theorized that genetic exchange through transposition may account for the diverse bacterial genetic codes that occur during evolution. Lo and behold, these bacteria that never resisted anything now were resistant, in some cases, to both A and B. This is all basic research. The DNA structure and the double helix had just been announced, and looking at genes in science was all the rage. Werner Arber stands outside the Biozentrum at the University of Basel, ... important experiment. Born on June 3, 1929, in Switzerland, Werner Arber earned his Ph.D. in biophysics from the University of Geneva in 1958. All rights reserved. He learned that he was sharing that year’s Nobel Prize in Medicine with Werner Arber and Daniel Nathans, another Johns Hopkins scientist who had followed up on Smith’s enzyme research with experiments of his own. When marked phages try to enter new bacteria, the marks can signal that the phages are foreign invaders, allowing the new bacteria to kill the phages. There’s a gene that codes for this enzyme in the bacterium that modifies its own DNA bases. Revel, with help from Luria, Georgopoulos, and others, found that the T2 phage takes this system one step farther by using a bacterial enzyme to attach sugars to modified cytosines. She didn’t advertise her skill as a scientist; she just got to work. Arber proposed a hypothesis to explain this phenomenon, and he called this “virus restriction.”. When marked phages try to enter new bacteria, the marks can signal that the phages are foreign invaders, allowing the new bacteria to kill the phages. In a remark-ably prophetic review in 1965, Arber postulated the existence of site- Ever the scientists, they weren’t out there on the beach surfing; they were at this deli doodling on a napkin, and they doodled two different DNAs, cut them with a restriction enzyme, and put them together in the test tube. What had they done? X__ Kristian T. Parks _____ X_____10/29/2020 _____ Introduction: In 1968 Dr. Werner Arber of the University of Basel, Switzerland and Dr. Hamilton Smith of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, found a series of bacteria enzymes which, when applied to some DNA, would break down the sugar phosphate relation between some nuclear bases. But many important discoveries, from penicillin to medical X-rays, are inspired by a messy fluke rather than carefully reasoned logic, and Human’s discovery was no different. “At every stage, he was wondering what the next step would be.” But even geniuses need a messy fluke like Human’s now and then. In addition to being a skilled scientist, Luria was a thoughtful mentor. A decade after these initial reports, Werner Arber and Daisy Dussoix, using phage lambda as experimental system, showed that it was the phage DNA that carried the host-range imprint . © The Teaching Company, LLC. But by the 1980s, scientists had harnessed restriction enzymes for a whole host of safe purposes, and technologies centered around these enzymes continue to evolve. Prenatal genetic diagnosis with the help of DNA, was discovered. 1976 Prenatal genetic diagnosis with the help of DNA, was discovered. It had a gene that made it resistant to antibiotic B. He and two collaborators won the Nobel Prize after realizing that pre-existing genetic mutations in bacteria can protect them from deadly phages. So then Cohen and Boyer apparently, by an anecdotal story, were sitting at a deli in Waikiki where they were at a conference. Circumstances, New Way to Calculate “Dog Years” Raises Questions of Aging and DNA, Lab-Grown Human Brains Show Brain Waves, Igniting Ethics Controversy. Georgopoulos describes Revel as reserved and meticulous. Bacterial viruses are also called bacteriophages. Werner Arber was born in Switzerland in 1929 and graduated from one of the world’s great universities, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, in Zurich. He was known as an insightful scientist, a kind colleague, and a thoughtful mentor, right up until his death in 1991. Since Human’s fortuitously messy experiment, a lineage of phage researchers that originated in Luria’s lab had learned a lot about how bacteria and phages interact. 1976. Arber: Yeah, and my experiment was done in 1960. This came at the tuition of Werner Arber (Image 1), who received the Nobel Prize together with Smith and the late Dan Nathans. 9). Gregor Mendel Also known as the father of modern genetics, Gregor Mendel was an Augustinian monk. Berg (b. Each of them was highly specific for a certain site that happened to be on a virus. J. Mol. It was not until the 1960s that a theory to explain this phenomenon was proposed and then biochemically demonstrated by Werner Arber and his laboratory (summarized in ref. Meselson has investigated DNA repair in cells and how cells recognize and destroy foreign DNA, and, with Werner Arber, was responsible for the discovery of restriction enzymes. For much of his career, Luria applied his keen insight to phages — viruses that invade and kill bacteria. In 1966 he married Antonia Arber and had two daughters, Silvia and Caroline, born respectively in 1968 and 1974. Bacterial viruses are also called bacteriophages. T2 phages and their relationship to restriction enzymes are just one area of biology where Luria and his lab made profound contributions. They eat—“phage” comes from eat—bacteria. But Luria’s life was also extraordinary. Arber studied bacterial viruses. 1976 Prenatal genetic diagnosis with the help of DNA, was discovered. Learn more about how research on smoking and lung cancer helped scientists figure out that DNA was damaged in the tumor cells. It injects its DNA into the cell, and this DNA of the bacterial virus then takes over the cell, and half an hour later, that cell, which was converted from a bacterial cell into a virus factory, is dead. After leaving Europe in the 1940s to escape the persecution of Jews like himself, he held professorships at three American institutions, including MIT. The Great Tours: England, Scotland, and Wales, City of Hope Medical Center, Claremont Colleges, the history of genetics and the three major unifying ideas in biological science, the physical and chemical environment of the gene, how research on smoking and lung cancer helped scientists figure out that DNA was damaged in the tumor cells, What Makes People Happy? In his career Arber was a professor at several universities, including the University of Southern California and the University of Basel. Simultaneously, Matt Meselson and Bob Yuan also isolated a restriction enzyme from Escherichia coli K ( 10 ). This came at the tuition of Werner Arber (Image 1), who received the Nobel Prize together with Smith and the late Dan Nathans. They eat—“phage” comes from eat—bacteria. ), Swiss microbiologist, corecipient with Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Othanel Smith of the United States … In addition to being a skilled scientist, Luria was deeply opposed to McCarthyism and the Vietnam War, and he devoted a lot of time to political activism like writing letters, to newspaper editors as well as to other scientists, trying to gather support for his views. Back then, Arber had given an expert opinion on the Ciba experiments in person in the laboratory. Scientists had just begun to elucidate the link between genetics, viruses, and cancer in the early 1970s, but Baltimore says that Luria was often the first person to jump on new applications for the techniques and thinking underlying molecular biology. Other host cells didn’t. Werner Arber, (born June 3, 1929, Gränichen, Switz. 77 Massachusetts Ave, 68-132 | Cambridge, MA 02139 | 617–253–4701, © 2019 MIT Department of Biology | Credits, Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology, Biology Undergraduate Student Association, Interdisciplinary and Joint Degree Programs, Bernard S. and Sophie G. Gould MIT Summer Research Program in Biology (BSG-MSRP-Bio). In 1958, Luria came to MIT Biology for a sabbatical. Arber’s Ph.D. thesis was on the phenomenon of bacteriophage restriction—a phenomenon in which a specific type of bacterial virus can only infect a specific genetic strain of host bacteria. They thought—if we can take DNA and cut it, maybe we can put it back together again. But the next morning, the Shigella were dead! WERNER ARBER INTRODUCTION In the last 60 years, research in the life sciences has uncovered a wealth of information on biological functions. That was the first physical map of DNA in the 1970s. It adds some chemical groups, and they’re no longer recognized by the restriction enzyme, so it doesn’t chop its own DNA. At the end of his sabbatical, Luria accepted a permanent position in MIT Biology, where he stayed for the rest of his career. Several basic techniques were used in this experiment in order to reach the objective. There’s an enzyme. The restriction enzyme story starts in the late 1940s, when Luria was a professor at Indiana University. Werner Arber, (born June 3, 1929, Gränichen, Switz. “If you wanted to know something on a daily basis, you went to Helen Revel,” recalls Costa Georgopoulos, a professor at the University of Utah who earned his PhD in Luria’s lab in the 1960s. The first experiment on recombinant DNA cloning was performed by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen. But the untidy experiment Luria ... Later, Bertani’s own research associate, Werner Arber, went on to discover that bacteria can mark the DNA of phages that replicate within them. His interest in science was stimulated by his reading of Paul De Kruif’s Microbe Hunters (1926) and Sinclair Lewis’s Arrowsmith (1925). Arber’s hypothesis—all three aspects—was soon confirmed. Biol. Arber and two of his colleagues, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith, eventually won their own Nobel prize for their work on restriction enzymes. 89-year-old Smith told Union Tribune that he was in poor health and was returning to Maryland. They had two different strains of bacteria. Arber was specifically interested in the fact that certain viruses were restricted to certain host cells. Nobel laureate Hamilton Smith is a humble biochemist who revolutionized scientists’ abilities in drug design, vaccine cultivation, disease screening, crop enrichment, and research by Lahoya’s J. Craig Venter. “Luria’s genius was understanding where biology was going,” says Baltimore. “Those days, women were not readily made professors, so she worked on Luria’s grants,” Georgopoulos says. David Baltimore, professor at the California Institute of Technology, was one of Luria’s early mentees at MIT. Molecular cloning refers to the isolation of a DNA sequence from any species (often a gene), and its insertion into a vector for propagation, without alteration of the original DNA sequence. First, Luria’s former research associate, Guiseppe Bertani, showed that phages other than T2 also behave differently in different types of bacteria. Although it could be said that Gregor Mendel was the first genetic engineer, the most commonly accepted names in genetic engineering are Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1972. These scientists had taken two chromosomes, cut them open, put them back together, and showed that they were functional in a cell. If you look at our. This was done at Johns Hopkins by a colleague of Hamilton Smith—who had done this restriction insight—named Daniel Nathans and his graduate student, Kathleen Danna. In fact, as the first director of the Center for Cancer Research, Luria recruited Phillip Sharp, who would go on to win a Nobel Prize for discovering RNA splicing. T2 always killed the first batch of mutant E. coli, but when he tested whether a new batch of the same type of bacteria would catch the virus from the dead bacteria, the new batch didn’t succumb to the virus. In 1962 Werner Arber and his doctoral student, Daisy Dussoix, based on experiments they had conducted with with lambda phage, proposed the phenomenon could be explained by restriction and modification enzymes produced by bacteria to defend themselves against invading viruses. It was not until the 1960s that a theory to explain this phenomenon was proposed and then biochemically demonstrated by Werner Arber and his laboratory (summarized in ref. Werner Arber's 170 research works with 7,182 citations and 10,774 reads, including: Genetic engineering represents a safe approach for innovations improving nutritional contents of major food crops And they said, gee, if we can do this with two different DNAs, we can do this with any chromosome, and we can swap chromosome pieces in the test tube. 2 Much of his research was directly related to evolution, and for this reason his conclusions in this area are of considerable interest. Scientists have used restriction enzymes to make proteins glow like jellyfish, to study the structure of DNA, and to make bacteria produce insulin. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1978/press-release He proposed the idea for how these enzymes work, which was verified by American microbiologist Hamilton Smith. His career … All three aspects were confirmed. Restriction enzymes were first discovered by “Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith, and Scientists soon described other restriction enzymes that would cut DNA at other DNA sequence sites. One day, in the midst of an experiment, Human realized she’d run out of the strain of E. coli she usually used, and this is where the experiment got a little untidy. (1962) 5, 18-36 Host Speciticity of DNA Produced by Escherichia Coli L Host controlled modification of bacteriophage ~, WERNER ARBER AI~D DAISY DUSSOIX Biophysic8 Laboratory, University of Genera, Switzerland ( Received 23 January 1962) Lambda bacteriophage particles carry a "host specificity" determined by the baeterial strains on whieh they were produced. The structure of DNA had been discovered just five years earlier, and MIT needed someone who understood its implications to usher the Institute into the genomics era. Learn more about the physical and chemical environment of the gene. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. 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And looking at Genes in science was all the rage 1965, Arber given! Genetically functional recombinant DNA cloning was performed by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen West Coast and the! Material into the DNA structure and the University of Southern California and the University of Southern California and University!

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