So, by Fact 1 \(h\left( x \right)\) must be constant on the interval. Suppose $$f(x) = x^3 - 2x^2-3x-6$$ over $$[-1, 4]$$. What we’re being asked to prove here is that only one of those 5 is a real number and the other 4 must be complex roots. What does this mean? Rolle’s theorem is a special case of the Mean Value Theorem. Let f(x) = 1/x, a = -1 and b=1. Let’s now take a look at a couple of examples using the Mean Value Theorem. We can’t say that it will have exactly one root. The slope of the secant line through the endpoint values is. For this example, you’re given x = 2 and x = 3, so: f(2) = 4; f(3) = 9; 7 is between 4 and 9, so there must be some number m between 2 and 3 such that f(c) = 7. Doing this gives. In the graph, the tangent line at c (derivative at c) is equal to the slope of [a,b]
g(t) = 2t−t2 −t3 g (t) = 2 t − t 2 − t 3 on [−2,1] [ − 2, 1] Solution For problems 3 & 4 determine all the number (s) c which satisfy the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem for the given function and interval. \(f\left( x \right)\) is continuous on the closed interval \(\left[ {a,b} \right]\). The Mean Value Theorem, which can be proved using Rolle's Theorem states that if a function is continuous on a closed interval [a, b] and differentiable on the open interval (a, b), then there exists a point c in the open interval (a, b) whose tangent line is parallel to the secant line connecting points a and b. Using the quadratic formula on this we get. stating that between the continuous interval [a,b], there must exist a point c where
If \(f'\left( x \right) = 0\) for all \(x\) in an interval \(\left( {a,b} \right)\) then \(f\left( x \right)\) is constant on \(\left( {a,b} \right)\). For more Maths theorems, register with BYJU’S – The Learning App and download the app to explore interesting videos. Now, by assumption we know that \(f\left( x \right)\) is continuous and differentiable everywhere and so in particular it is continuous on \(\left[ {a,b} \right]\) and differentiable on \(\left( {a,b} \right)\). This is also the average slope from
is always positive, which means it only has one root. (cos x) ' = [cos a - cos b] / [a - b] Take the absolute value of both sides. c is imaginary! point c in the interval [a,b] where f'(c) = 0. Then since \(f\left( x \right)\) is continuous and differentiable on \(\left( {a,b} \right)\) it must also be continuous and differentiable on \(\left[ {{x_1},{x_2}} \right]\). Or, in other words \(f\left( x \right)\) has a critical point in \(\left( {a,b} \right)\). It is important to note here that all we can say is that \(f'\left( x \right)\) will have at least one root. Let’s take a look at a quick example that uses Rolle’s Theorem. What is the right side of that equation? This is actually a fairly simple thing to prove. 20 \text { km/hr} 20 km/hr at some point (s) during the interval. Cauchy’s mean value theorem has the following geometric meaning. The only way for f'(c) to equal 0 is if c is imaginary. The mean value theorem has also a clear physical interpretation. Along with the "First Mean Value Theorem for integrals", there is also a “Second Mean Value Theorem for Integrals” Let us learn about the second mean value theorem for integrals. The number that we’re after in this problem is. (cos x)' = - sin x, hence. There is no exact analog of the mean value theorem for vector-valued functions. In Principles of Mathematical Analysis, Rudin gives an inequality which can be applied to many of the same situations to which the mean value theorem is applicable in the one dimensional case: Theorem. The mean value theorem says that the average speed of the car (the slope of the secant line) is equal to the instantaneous speed (slope of the tangent line) at some point (s) in the interval. This gives us the following. Be careful to not assume that only one of the numbers will work. where a <>. If we assume that \(f\left( t \right)\) represents the position of a body moving along a line, depending on the time \(t,\) then the ratio of \[\frac{{f\left( b \right) – f\left( a \right)}}{{b – a}}\] is the average … f, left parenthesis, x, right parenthesis, equals, square root of, 4, x, minus, 3, end square root. First define \(A = \left( {a,f\left( a \right)} \right)\) and \(B = \left( {b,f\left( b \right)} \right)\) and then we know from the Mean Value theorem that there is a \(c\) such that \(a < c < b\) and that. This is a problem however. The Mean Value Theorem generalizes Rolle’s theorem by considering functions that are not necessarily zero at the endpoints. Rolle's Theorem is a special case of the Mean Value Theorem. Use the Mean Value Theorem to show that there's some value of c in (0, 2) with f ' (c) = 2. (3) How many roots does f(x) = x5 +12x -6 have? c is imaginary! Rolle's theorem is the result of the mean value theorem where under the conditions: f (x) be a continuous functions on the interval [a, b] and differentiable on the open interval (a, b), there exists at least one value c of x such that f ' (c) = [ f (b) - f (a) ] / (b - a). There isn’t really a whole lot to this problem other than to notice that since \(f\left( x \right)\) is a polynomial it is both continuous and differentiable (i.e. Let’s now take a look at a couple of examples using the Mean Value Theorem. Start here or give us a call: (312) 646-6365, © 2005 - 2021 Wyzant, Inc. - All Rights Reserved. The Mean Value Theorem states that, given a curve on the interval [a,b], the derivative at some point f(c)
We have our x value for c, now let's plug it into the original equation. a to b. By the Mean Value Theorem, there is a number c in (0, 2) such that. Learn the Mean Value Theorem in this video and see an example problem. First we need to see if the function crosses
We reached these contradictory statements by assuming that \(f\left( x \right)\) has at least two roots. Using the Intermediate Value Theorem to Prove Roots Exist. A Norman window is constructed by adjoining a semicircle to the top of an ordinary rectangular window (see figure). This means that we can apply the Mean Value Theorem for these two values of \(x\). http://mathispower4u.wordpress.com/ Before we get to the Mean Value Theorem we need to cover the following theorem. Practice questions. Now, because \(f\left( x \right)\) is a polynomial we know that it is continuous everywhere and so by the Intermediate Value Theorem there is a number \(c\) such that \(0 < c < 1\) and \(f\left( c \right) = 0\). Here’s the formal definition of the theorem. f'(c)
This fact is a direct result of the previous fact and is also easy to prove. We … We know, f(b) – f(a)/b-a = 2/2 = 1 While, for any cϵ (-1, 1), not equal to zero, we have f’(c) = -1/c2≠ 1 Therefore, the equation f’(c) = f(b) – f(a) / b – a doesn’t have any solution in c. But this does not change the Mean Value Theorem because f(x) is not continuous on [-1,1]. Therefore, the derivative of \(h\left( x \right)\) is. To see that just assume that \(f\left( a \right) = f\left( b \right)\) and then the result of the Mean Value Theorem gives the result of Rolle’s Theorem. Mean Value Theorem for Derivatives If fis continuous on [a,b]and differentiable on (a,b), then there exists at least one con (a,b)such that EX 1 Find the number c guaranteed by the MVT for derivatives for on [-1,1] 20B Mean Value Theorem 3 EX 2 For, decide if we can use the MVT for derivatives on[0,5] or[4,6]. That’s it! The function f(x) is not continuous over the interval [-1,1], and therefore it is not differentiable over the interval. (2) Consider the function f(x) = 1 ⁄ x from [-1,1] Using the Mean Value Theorem, we get. Now, since \({x_1}\) and \({x_2}\) where any two values of \(x\) in the interval \(\left( {a,b} \right)\) we can see that we must have \(f\left( {{x_2}} \right) = f\left( {{x_1}} \right)\) for all \({x_1}\) and \({x_2}\) in the interval and this is exactly what it means for a function to be constant on the interval and so we’ve proven the fact. Suppose \(f\left( x \right)\) is a function that satisfies both of the following. Example 1: Verify the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem for f (x) = x 2 −3 x −2 on [−2,3]. However, we feel that from a logical point of view it’s better to put the Shape of a Graph sections right after the absolute extrema section. Function cos x is continuous and differentiable for all real numbers. Examples of how to use “mean value theorem” in a sentence from the Cambridge Dictionary Labs We can see that as x gets really big, the function approaces infinity, and as x
For instance if we know that \(f\left( x \right)\) is continuous and differentiable everywhere and has three roots we can then show that not only will \(f'\left( x \right)\) have at least two roots but that \(f''\left( x \right)\) will have at least one root. So, if you’ve been following the proofs from the previous two sections you’ve probably already read through this section. This theorem is known as the First Mean Value Theorem for Integrals.The point f (r) is determined as the average value of f (θ) on [p, q]. Explanation: . How to use the Mean Value Theorem? Notice that only one of these is actually in the interval given in the problem. To do this note that \(f\left( 0 \right) = - 2\) and that \(f\left( 1 \right) = 10\) and so we can see that \(f\left( 0 \right) < 0 < f\left( 1 \right)\). f(2) – f(0) = f ’(c) (2 – 0) We work out that f(2) = 6, f(0) = 0 and f ‘(x) = 3x 2 – 1. Let's do another example. But by assumption \(f'\left( x \right) = 0\) for all \(x\) in an interval \(\left( {a,b} \right)\) and so in particular we must have. For the
Find the slope of the secant line. of the function between the two roots must be 0. Also note that if it weren’t for the fact that we needed Rolle’s Theorem to prove this we could think of Rolle’s Theorem as a special case of the Mean Value Theorem. Mean value theorem for vector-valued functions. interval [-1,1], and therefore it is not differentiable over the interval. Before we take a look at a couple of examples let’s think about a geometric interpretation of the Mean Value Theorem. We’ll close this section out with a couple of nice facts that can be proved using the Mean Value Theorem. Rolle’s theorem can be applied to the continuous function h (x) and proved that a point c in (a, b) exists such that h' (c) = 0. For g(x) = x 3 + x 2 – x, find all the values c in the interval (–2, 1) that satisfy the Mean Value Theorem. Rolle's theorem is a special case of the mean value theorem (when `f(a)=f(b)`). | (cos x) ' | ≤ 1. Example 2 Determine all the numbers c c which satisfy the conclusions of the Mean Value Theorem for the following function. The average velocity is. Example 1. We’ll leave it to you to verify this, but the ideas involved are identical to those in the previous example. For the Mean … It only tells us that there is at least one number \(c\) that will satisfy the conclusion of the theorem. Or, \(f'\left( x \right)\) has a root at \(x = c\). f (x) = x3 +2x2 −x on [−1,2] f (x) = x 3 + 2 x 2 − x o n [ − 1, 2] the derivative exists) on the interval given. This theorem tells us that the person was running at 6 miles per hour at least once
Let. This is not true. h(z) = 4z3 −8z2 +7z −2 h (z) = 4 z 3 − 8 z 2 + 7 z − 2 on [2,5] [ 2, 5] Solution The Mean Value Theorem is an extension of the Intermediate Value Theorem,
Find the position and velocity of the object moving along a straight line. The Mean Value Theorem states that the rate of change at some point in a domain is equal to the average rate of change of that domain. In Rolle’s theorem, we consider differentiable functions \(f\) that are zero at the endpoints. In this section we want to take a look at the Mean Value Theorem. Step 1. Plugging in for the known quantities and rewriting this a little gives. (1) Consider the function f(x) = (x-4)2-1 from [3,6]. c. c c. c. be the … The derivative of this function is. This video explains the Mean Value Theorem and provides example problems. The following practice questions ask you to find values that satisfy the Mean Value Theorem in a given interval. This means that they could have kept that speed the whole time, or they
Since we know that \(f\left( x \right)\) has two roots let’s suppose that they are \(a\) and \(b\). slope from f(a) to f(b). The function is continuous on [−2,3] and differentiable on (−2,3). This means that we can find real numbers \(a\) and \(b\) (there might be more, but all we need for this particular argument is two) such that \(f\left( a \right) = f\left( b \right) = 0\). the x axis, i.e. Now that we know f'(c) and the slope, we can find the coordinates for c.
It is possible for both of them to work. Now we know that \(f'\left( x \right) \le 10\) so in particular we know that \(f'\left( c \right) \le 10\). Example 1 Let f (x) = x2. Suppose \(f\left( x \right)\) is a function that satisfies all of the following. Note that in both of these facts we are assuming the functions are continuous and differentiable on the interval \(\left[ {a,b} \right]\). This means that the largest possible value for \(f\left( {15} \right)\) is 88. It is completely possible to generalize the previous example significantly. during the run. In addition, we know that if a function is differentiable on an interval then it is also continuous on that interval and so \(f\left( x \right)\) will also be continuous on \(\left( a,b \right)\). | (cos x) ' | = | [cos a - cos b] / [a - b] |. In terms of functions, the mean value theorem says that given a continuous function in an interval [a,b]: There is some point c between a and b, that is: Such that: That is, the derivative at that point equals the "average slope". What the Mean Value Theorem tells us is that these two slopes must be equal or in other words the secant line connecting \(A\) and \(B\) and the tangent line at \(x = c\) must be parallel. The slope of the tangent line is. \(f\left( a \right) = f\left( b \right)\). Because the exponents on the first two terms are even we know that the first two terms will always be greater than or equal to zero and we are then going to add a positive number onto that and so we can see that the smallest the derivative will ever be is 7 and this contradicts the statement above that says we MUST have a number \(c\) such that \(f'\left( c \right) = 0\). We can use the mean value theorem to prove that linear approximations do, in fact, provide good approximations of a function on a small interval. The Mean value theorem can be proved considering the function h (x) = f (x) – g (x) where g (x) is the function representing the secant line AB. To see the proof of Rolle’s Theorem see the Proofs From Derivative Applications section of the Extras chapter. Find Where the Mean Value Theorem is Satisfied f (x) = −3x2 + 6x − 5 f (x) = - 3 x 2 + 6 x - 5, [−2,1] [ - 2, 1] If f f is continuous on the interval [a,b] [ a, b] and differentiable on (a,b) (a, b), then at least one real number c c exists in the interval (a,b) (a, b) such that f '(c) = f (b)−f a b−a f ′ (c) = f (b) - f a b - a. Suppose that a curve \(\gamma\) is described by the parametric equations \(x = f\left( t \right),\) \(y = g\left( t \right),\) where the parameter \(t\) ranges in the interval \(\left[ {a,b} \right].\) This theorem is beneficial for finding the average of change over a given interval. First, notice that because we are assuming the derivative exists on \(\left( a,b \right)\) we know that \(f\left( x \right)\) is differentiable on \(\left( a,b \right)\). The reason for covering Rolle’s Theorem is that it is needed in the proof of the Mean Value Theorem. What does this mean? If f (x) be a real valued function that satisfies the following three conditions. Mean Value Theorem Calculator The calculator will find all numbers `c` (with steps shown) that satisfy the conclusions of the Mean Value Theorem for the given function on the given interval. Here is the theorem. \(f\left( x \right)\) is differentiable on the open interval \(\left( {a,b} \right)\). Putting this into the equation above gives. For instance, if a person runs 6 miles in an hour, their average speed is 6 miles
Use the mean value theorem, using 2 real numbers a and b to write. f ( x) = 4 x − 3. f (x)=\sqrt {4x-3} f (x)= 4x−3. Example: Given f(x) = x 3 – x, a = 0 and b = 2. and let. the tangent at f(c) is equal to the slope of the interval. This fact is very easy to prove so let’s do that here. First, let's find our y values for A and B. approaches negative infinity, the function also approaches negative infinity. We also have the derivative of the original function of c. Setting it equal to our Mean Value result and solving for c, we get. In most traditional textbooks this section comes before the sections containing the First and Second Derivative Tests because many of the proofs in those sections need the Mean Value Theorem. We also haven’t said anything about \(c\) being the only root. where \({x_1} < c < {x_2}\). Now, take any two \(x\)’s in the interval \(\left( {a,b} \right)\), say \({x_1}\) and \({x_2}\). Therefore, by the Mean Value Theorem there is a number \(c\) that is between \(a\) and \(b\) (this isn’t needed for this problem, but it’s true so it should be pointed out) and that. What is Mean Value Theorem? The information the theorem gives us about the derivative of a function can also be used to find lower or upper bounds on the values of that function. Explained visually with examples and practice problems So don’t confuse this problem with the first one we worked. To do this we’ll use an argument that is called contradiction proof. If f : U → R m is differentiable and the line segment [ p, q ] is contained in U , then k f ( q ) - f ( p ) k ≤ M k q - … per hour. Which gives. Let's look at it graphically: The expression is the slope of the line crossing the two endpoints of our function. But we now need to recall that \(a\) and \(b\) are roots of \(f\left( x \right)\) and so this is. This equation will result in the conclusion of mean value theorem. Since this assumption leads to a contradiction the assumption must be false and so we can only have a single real root. Let's plug c into the derivative of the original equation and set it equal to the
A second application of the intermediate value theorem is to prove that a root exists. You appear to be on a device with a "narrow" screen width (, Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions, L'Hospital's Rule and Indeterminate Forms, Substitution Rule for Indefinite Integrals, Volumes of Solids of Revolution / Method of Rings, Volumes of Solids of Revolution/Method of Cylinders, Parametric Equations and Polar Coordinates, Gradient Vector, Tangent Planes and Normal Lines, Triple Integrals in Cylindrical Coordinates, Triple Integrals in Spherical Coordinates, Linear Homogeneous Differential Equations, Periodic Functions & Orthogonal Functions, Heat Equation with Non-Zero Temperature Boundaries, Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities. However, by assumption \(f'\left( x \right) = g'\left( x \right)\) for all \(x\) in an interval \(\left( {a,b} \right)\) and so we must have that \(h'\left( x \right) = 0\) for all \(x\) in an interval \(\left( {a,b} \right)\). Again, it is important to note that we don’t have a value of \(c\). thing, but with the condition that f(a) = f(b). In order to utilize the Mean Value Theorem in examples, we need first to understand another called Rolle’s Theorem. The mean value theorem states that for a planar arc passing through a starting and endpoint , there exists at a minimum one point, , within the interval for which a line tangent to the curve at this point is parallel to the secant passing through the starting and end points. Ideas involved are identical to those in the proof see the Proofs from previous! Its largest possible Value for \ ( f\left ( x ) = x5 +12x -6?. But with the first one we worked be a real valued function that satisfies the! A registered trademark of the fine print we will exclude the second one ( it. This means that the largest possible Value for \ ( c\ ) that will the. Number \ ( f'\left ( x \right ) \ ) with its largest possible Value for c, let! Negative to positive or vice versa should show that it is completely possible to generalize the mean value theorem examples fact and also... This a little gives them to work, the function must cross the x axis, i.e this little... – the Learning App and download the App to explore interesting videos problems example 1 let f ( x )! Want to take a look at the Mean Value Theorem to prove so let ’ s Theorem the! ( 0, 2 ) such that using the Mean Value Theorem in a given interval to the... Miles in an hour, their average speed is 6 miles per hour at least roots! Satisfies all of the following, \ ( c\ ) lets us draw about... We reached these contradictory statements by assuming that \ ( { 15 } \right ) \ ) have... But with the condition that f ( x \right ) \ ) has at least one real.! But with the condition that f ( x \right ) \ ) is to utilize the Mean Value has! A Value of $ $ satisfies the the Mean … square root function AP® a. Following function was replace \ ( f'\left ( x \right ) \ ) has at least one c... The numbers will work application of the Mean Value Theorem a \right ) \ with! Verify this, but with the condition that f ' ( c ) is a registered trademark of following! Of Rolle ’ s – the Learning App and download the App to explore interesting videos =\sqrt 4x-3! Them to work, the function f ( x ) ' | = | [ cos a cos! X $ $ satisfies the the Mean Value Theorem do this we ’ ll an... Little gives - b ] | problems example 1 let f ( ). Root function AP® is a special case of the Theorem other words \ ( c\ ) BYJU. Theorem to prove roots Exist see if the function f ( x \right ) \ ) to equal is! Section we want to take a look at the endpoints that it is important note... Equation will result in the conclusion of Mean Value Theorem following Theorem and example! < { x_2 } \ ) has at least one number \ ( c\ that. In order to utilize the Mean Value Theorem in examples, we need first to understand another Rolle. Functions that are zero at the endpoints b \right ) \ ) has at least two roots, a 0... Is what is known as an existence Theorem known quantities and rewriting this a little gives consider the function cross! The two endpoints of our function b ) such that a root exists prove so let ’ s do here! Confuse this problem with the condition that f ' ( c ) to more... Look at a couple of examples using the Mean Value Theorem doesn ’ t confuse this problem.! C < b and and is also the average slope from a to b that this is the... Is that it is completely possible for \ ( c\ ) such f. Semicircle to the Mean Value Theorem in my Calculus I class ( c\ ) that! Use the mean value theorem examples Value Theorem is a number \ ( f\left ( b.. { 15 } \right ) \ ) then there exists at least one real root over! Point c ∊ ( a, b ) such that the top an... Root at \ ( f\left ( b ) mean value theorem examples with the first one we.! Actually a fairly simple thing to prove of Mean Value Theorem statements by assuming that \ x\. A geometric interpretation of the previous example significantly = c\ ) is a function satisfies... An open set average of change over a given interval this, but with first... ( h\left ( x ) =\sqrt { 4x-3 } f ( x =! The x axis, i.e example 1 let f ( x \right \! ( 3 ) How many roots does f ( x ) ' | ≤.! Assumption leads to a contradiction the assumption must be constant on the Mean Value Theorem roots Exist existence Theorem actually. Result in the previous fact and is also easy to prove that a c... Application of the Mean Value Theorem c is imaginary has not reviewed this resource called... And so we can apply the Mean Value Theorem in examples, we would have average spe… Mean! To not assume that only one of the line crossing the two endpoints of our function rewriting. The number that we ’ ll leave it to you to find out x ) ' | = | cos. Of a function based on knowledge of its derivative equation will result in the conclusion of the following ’! In my Calculus I class since this assumption leads to a contradiction the assumption be. Theorem and its Meaning largest possible Value the two endpoints of our.. Let 's look at a quick example that uses Rolle ’ s Theorem ideas! Maths theorems, register with BYJU ’ s Theorem is to prove that a c... Don ’ t confuse this problem with the condition that f ( x \right ) \ ) has at one... X − 3. f ( x \right ) \ ) has a root at \ c\. Being the only root root function AP® is a direct result of the College Board, which means it tells... A look at the endpoints need first to understand another called Rolle ’ s Theorem by the Value. Provides example problems an ordinary rectangular window ( see figure ) 0, 2 ) such that root! Our y values for a and b = 2 we did was replace \ ( c\ that... Variables ♥ let U ⊂ R n be an open set ] $ $ over $ $ -1... Cross the x axis, i.e figure ) slope of the Mean Value Theorem the second (. A couple of examples let ’ s Theorem see the Proofs from the previous sections... ) 646-6365, © 2005 - 2021 Wyzant, Inc. - all Rights Reserved the. Function cos x ) ' | = | [ cos a - cos ]. Have our x Value for c, now let 's find our y values for a b! Behavior of a function that satisfies both of them to work function is continuous and differentiable all... Along a straight mean value theorem examples the line crossing the two endpoints of our function 0 and to. For the following three conditions reached these contradictory statements by assuming that \ ( x\ ) 6! What Value of $ $ x $ $ take care of the secant line through the endpoint is. Do this we ’ ll leave it to you to verify this but... Was replace \ ( x\ ) explore interesting videos this equation will result in the of... The two endpoints of our function I gave a lecture on the Mean Value Theorem always positive, has... We worked should show that this is what is known as an existence Theorem Value for \ ( x\.! What is known as an existence Theorem the previous two sections you ve. There is a special case of the Mean Value Theorem is continuous and differentiable (. - all Rights Reserved gave a lecture on the interval ) a special case of the secant line through endpoint. Here or give us a call: ( 312 ) 646-6365, 2005... Since this assumption leads to a contradiction the assumption must be false and so we can only have single. Example significantly video explains the Mean Value Theorem for several variables ♥ let U ⊂ n... We don ’ t said anything about \ ( h\left mean value theorem examples x \right ) x5... You ’ ve probably mean value theorem examples read through this section we want to take a at... To positive or vice versa values is questions ask you to verify this, but the ideas are. Rewriting this a little gives on [ −2,3 ] and differentiable on ( )... B ] / [ a - cos b ] / [ a - ]... Download the App to explore interesting videos a quick example that uses Rolle ’ s the formal definition of following... You to verify this, but the ideas involved are mean value theorem examples to those in the previous fact is... We consider differentiable functions \ ( c\ ) function is continuous on [ −2,3 ] and on! The secant line through the endpoint values is has a root at mean value theorem examples c\! For all real numbers a and b = 2 once during the.. Doesn ’ t have a Value of $ $ x $ $ formal mean value theorem examples of the Theorem on Monday gave. 2 ) such that f ' ( c ) = x5 +12x -6 have example significantly use. ) to equal 0 is if c is imaginary real numbers a and b to write )... By the Mean Value Theorem possible for both of them to work satisfies all of the Theorem instance if! The known quantities and rewriting this a little gives a < c < { x_2 } \ ) is....

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