The seeds ("black-eyed peas") are considered the edible form of the plant in the United States, but the leaves serve as a major staple in the diet throughout Africa and Asia (Bittenbender et al. CB1 content of all feeds was low but similar. Caracterização química de grãos verdes crus e após processamento térmico em cultivares biofortificadas de feijão-caupi. The moisture content, crude fibre and crude fat across all the samples in this study were low, while total carbohydrates were high. Increase in cowpea soaking time resulted in protein increase of GC. Starch was the major carbohydrate and about 50% of it was hydrolysed after 144 hours' germination. Results: Among green fodders, cowpea and berseem had higher CA content while except hedge lucerne all range herbages had lower CA values. There have been attempts to reduce fibrousness of cowpea hulls by different physico-chemical treatments such as soaking plus boiling or soaking for 3 days. Oat among green fodders and hybrid napier among range herbages had lower CC fraction. However, whilst starch, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose levels decreased, the reducing sugars, including glucose and fructose, increased. Biodiversitas 21: 85-91. Lignin contents increased slightly while hemicelluloses and celluloses decreased. 2.5 Moisture content. Cowpea is a food legume with high protein and carbohydrate contents, which could be explored in addressing food and nutritional challenges in many parts of the world. Insect infestation decreased the carbohydrate content of the stored grains, causing a relative increase in the proportionofprotein and fibre inthe remaining grain,and moisturecontent alsoincreased.Sitophiluszeamais preferentially fed in the floury endosperm of maize, resulting in more carbohydrate loss relative to protein loss. There was no significant difference in moisture content, carbohydrates and protein content between varieties and lines. Support weight loss. The values, on a dry weight basis, ranged from 22.9 to 32.5% for protein, 2.9 to 3.9% for ash, 1.4 to 2.7% for fat, 59.7 to 71.6% for carbohydrate, and 21.1 to 61.9 minutes for 50% cooking time. Cowpea is widely distributed in regions of tropical and temperate climates, thus differing morphologically (shape, size, colour of seed coat) and in proximate composition, hence effecting physicochemical characteristics. The highest protein value (29.34%) was recorded for EC (6 h of steeping), while the lowest protein content (20.83%) was in GC (3 h of steeping). Cowpea has a number of common names, including … All feeds except cowpea, berseem, and hedge lucerne contained higher CB2 values. 28 in Cowpea Research, Production and Utilization, Wiley and Sons.. Feeds such as bajra, cowpea, berseem and the … A decrease in the concentration of total carbohydrates was observed during 144 hours' germination of three cowpea varieties. Over-view, the cowpea seed protein content measured from the NIR analyzer showed a little higher seed protein content. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Carbohydrate composition of different varieties of cowpea (. However, some cowpea varieties are difficult to cook, resulting in high energy requirements and greater loss of nutrients. The carbohydrate content is quite high, (44.29 ± 1.50%) while it has low crude fibre content (4.70 ± 0.15%). CB 1 content of all feeds was low but similar. Cowpea line IT97K-1042-3 and TEXAN PINKIYE recorded the highest amount of crude protein. This might be attributed to the quantity of steeped cowpea flour in the blends. 8%. 2.6 Ash content 2.5 Moisture content Moisture content determination was carried out using the air oven method at temperature between 103-105°C. Cowpea is one of the most ancient crops known to man. Moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude protein, crude carbohydrate, crude fats contents of the cowpea cultivars were determined according to methods described by A.O.A.C [6]. Carbohydrate content of 50.95% to 53.98% reported for Nhyira, Tona and Adom cowpea varieties were within the ranges recorded in this research [9]. Cowpea is commonly cultivated as a nutritious and highly palatable food source in the southern United States, Middle East, Africa, Asia, and throughout the tropics and subtropics. Karuwal RL, Suharsono, Tjahjoleksono A, Hanif N. 2021. We describe here the enhancement of carbohydrate immunogenicity by an ordered display on the surface of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid. A decrease in the concentration of total carbohydrates was observed during 144 hours' germination of three cowpea varieties. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Changes in carbohydrate contents of germinating cowpea seeds. Cowpea is another underutilized and under researched crop in South Africa and is grown mainly by subsistence farmers for its leaves and seeds for human consumption. The protein in cowpea seed is rich in the amino acids, lysine and tryptophan, compared to cereal grains; however, it is deficient in methionine and cystine when compared to animal proteins. However, whilst starch, r… 1975). Calculation. The seed is reported to contain 24% crude protein, 53% carbohydrates, and 2% fat (FAO, 2012). Carbohydrates: 60.03 g: 46%: Protein: 23.52 g: 42%: Total Fat: 1.26 g: 6%: Cholesterol: 0 mg: 0%: Dietary Fiber: 10.6 g: 28%: Vitamins; Folates: 633 μg: 158%: Niacin: 2.075 mg: 13%: Pantothenic acid: 1.496 mg: 30%: Pyridoxine: 0.357 mg: 27%: … 62% soluble carbohydrates, and small amounts of other nutrients (Boulter et al. as well. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Copyright © 1986 Published by Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(86)90148-2. Germination generally showed a decrease in carbohydrate content, an increase in the protein content and a decrease in the fat content of pearl millet and cowpea. It is now a broadly adapted and highly variable crop, cultivated around the world primarily for seed, but also as a vegetable (for leafy greens, green pods, fresh shelled green peas, and shelled dried peas), a cover crop and for fodder. Carbohydrate content reduced after fermentation while anti-nutrient content reduced significantly after fermentation process. Water stress reduced net photosynthesis (A net), stomatal conductance (g sw), and transpiration, increased intercellular CO 2 concentration (C i), but had no effect on leaf water content (LWC) of the trifoliates in all cowpea cultivars regardless of the type or level of drought tolerance. 1984). Due to their Overall, a reduction in the ANC content (phytic acid, polyphenols and raffinose family oligosaccharides) was shown after fermentation and … However, the low immunogenecity of carbohydrates presents a formidable challenge. Markets and Economics With alternative crops such as dried black-eyed or Abstract. Short Communication: Characterization and nutrient analysis of seed of local cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties from Southwest Maluku, Indonesia. The protein content of EC and FC blends oscillated across soaking time. Carbohydrate content was calculated by difference and cooking time was tested with an. We selected two cowpea cultivars with contrasting response to salinity, Pitiúba (salt-tolerant) and TVu (salt-sensitive), to investigate whether the salt tolerance could be associated with changes in carbohydrate accumulation and … nutrient contents. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. It was shown that soaking for 3 days reduced fibre content and increased carbohydrates, maybe due to … The high protein content represents a major advantage in the use of cowpea in nutritional products, for … automated Mattson‐type bean cooker. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Its origin and subsequent domestication is associated with pearl millet and sorghum in Africa. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Nutrients are distributed more homogenously within cowpea than in maize grains, but Callosobruchus maculatus infestation increased the relative protein, fat, iron and zinc to carbohydrate ratios. There was significant increase in protein content of sorghum supplemented with cowpea, and a drastic reduction in the anti-nutrient content of all the fermented sample blends. Forage: There was significant increase in protein content of sorghum supplemented with cowpea, and a drastic carbohydrate and protein content of some forage feeds of ruminants for nutritive evaluation, Veterinary World 8(2)197-202. Immunotherapy targeting tumor cell surface carbohydrates is a promising approach for cancer treatment. carbohydrate, crude fats contents of the cowpea cultivars were determined according to methods described by A.O.A.C [6]. Therefore, cowpea seed is valued as a nutritional supplement to cereals and an extender of animal proteins. The carbohydrate content of the flours for cowpea and wheat flours was comparable to 57.17% for cowpea, 74.22% for wheat; reported by [4]. Calculation % Moisture content = Weight Loss WeightofSample × 100 2.6 Ash content is a legume species that have many local varieties across regions in Indonesia, including in Southwest Maluku District. content for cowpea seeds with the five types of seed coat except black. Moisture content determination was carried out using the air oven method at temperature between 103-105°C. Cowpea is considered nutritious with a protein content of about 23%, fat content of 1.3%, fiber content of 1.8%, carbohydrate content of 67% and water content of 8-9%. Black-eyed peas have been associated with a number of powerful health benefits. Changes also occurred in the concentration of the unavailable carbohydrates. The leaves and flowers can also be consumed. Thus, most of its nutritional value is provided by proteins and carbohydrates. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. A series of regression models with different seed coat color have been built to adjust to protein content of color-How to cite this paper: Weng, Y.J., Shi, A., Fermentation of cowpea generally showed a decrease in carbohydrate content, no significant changes in the protein content and contradictory results in the fat content. Carbohydrate content reduced after fermentation while anti-nutrient content reduced significantly after fermentation process. Genetic variability was observed for all traits. Chemical characterization of green grain before and after thermal processing in biofortified cowpea cultivars 1. generally showed a decrease in carbohydrate content, an increase in the protein content and a decrease in the fat content of pearl millet and cowpea. Copyright © 1980 Published by Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(80)90031-X. This indicates how the nutrient content of insect-infested stored grain depends upon the grain type, the infesting insect, and the infestation level. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a candidate crop for CELSS because of the low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate, moderate protein characteristics of the edible portion. The above-mentioned changes, occurring during germination, appear to have a favourable effect on the nutritional value of cowpea varieties. 1 From Bressani R. Chap. Twenty varieties of cowpea with the following proximate composition: dry matter, 87–94%; crude protein, 24–33% ether extract, 1–2%; crude fibre, 2–5% and ash, 2–5% were analysed for sugar contents, starch, cell wall carbohydrates and lignin. As in most legumes, the amino acid profile complements cereal grains. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Under salinity stress, plants commonly accumulate carbohydrates for osmotic adjustment to balance the excess accumulated ions and to protect biomolecules. For nutritive evaluation, Veterinary World 8 ( 2 ) 197-202 ) varieties Southwest... Karuwal RL, Suharsono, Tjahjoleksono a, Hanif N. 2021 ) 90148-2 in Southwest,. A decrease in the blends Wiley and carbohydrate content of cowpea or contributors berseem, and small amounts of other (... 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