Barriers and Facilitators to Inclusive Education JAYNE PIVIK JOAN MCCOMAS MARC LAFLAMME University of Ottawa, Canada ABSTRACT: To examine how inclusive our schools are after 25 years of educational reform, students with disabilities and their parents were asked to identify current barriers and provide suggestions for removing those barriers. Inclusive education is about ensuring access to quality education for all students by effectively meeting their diverse needs in a way that is responsive, accepting, respectful and supportive. This approach would allow a more detailed and specific investigation of the kinds of problems with the inclusion that exist in a selected environment. St Patrick's College. Inclusive Education Project by Save the Children (Grimes, 2010) are particularly useful inclusive education assessment tools, but other indicator sets and tools are also available. Inclusive Education: Barriers and Solutions. Inclusive education is when all students, regardless of any challenges they may have, are placed in age-appropriate general education classes that are in their own neighborhood schools to receive high-quality instruction, interventions, and supports that enable them to meet success in the core curriculum (Bui, Quirk, Almazan, & Valenti, 2010; Alquraini & Gut, 2012). The small size of the sample presents a significant limitation to the transferability and generalizability of the study results. Inclusive Education Our Constitution (Act 108 of 1996) founded our democratic state and common citizenship on the values of human dignity, the achievement of equality and the advancement of human rights and freedoms (Section 1a). In F. E. Obiakor, J. P. Bakken, & A. F. Rotatori (Eds. In addition to presenting the conclusions and recommendations from the conference, this introduction tackles a wide range of questions in the field of inclusive education on which there are still controversy and debate. It promotes Universalization of Elementary Education through focusing on Access, Enrollment as well as Retention of all children in the age group of 6-14 years. Local government may lack funding. Here are 6 of the most common obstacles to including all kids in the general curriculum—and some quick tips … Commit to inclusive education The World Bank’s aim is that all its education programs and projects will be disability inclusive by 2025. Some are obvious — like not having a school to go to — while others are more subtle, like the teacher at the school not having had the training needed to help children learn effectively. It doesn’t speak about giving a level playing field to these children as that won’t be equitable. BARRIERS TO EDUCATION – A Note INTRODUCTION – DISABILITY AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION It well known and oft quoted that disabled children have five and a half times the chance to be out of school than non-disabled peers1. Travers, Joseph, Balfe, Tish, Butler, Cathal, Day, Thérèse, McDaid, Rory, O'Donnell, Margaret and Prunty, Anita (2010) Addressing barriers and challenges to inclusive education in Irish schools. Powell, J. J. Inclusive education is a key aspect of the European Disability Strategy 2010–2020. For each barrier, we give examples of EAC partners that are addressing it. Also, St. Matthias Catholic School reported focusing on inclusion but facing budgetary constraints, especially when it comes to the training programs for the educators to master working with special needs students; moreover, the school authorities mentioned that research is required for them to be able to learn more about the needs of the students who face severe limitations due to their disabilities (Klich, 2017). These are as follows-, Recreational activities, provide educational and sports facilities, Use of most appropriate languages and modes of communication, Detect specific learning disabilities and early intervention, Establishment of adequate number of teacher training institutions, Training and employing teachers, professionals and staff, Provision for books, learning materials and assistive devices. The idea of inclusive education is a child of the capability approach which strives to make the disadvantaged section of the society capable instead of sympathizing with them throughout their lives. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing. At Ithaca College, I teach a course on inclusive community leisure services in which we devote one full week to a discussion of potential organizational barriers to inclusion and how to overcome them. ABDUL KALAM AIR AND SPACE LAW AND POLICY ESSAY COMPETITION, KALAM AIR-SPACE LAW AND POLICY ESSAY COMPETITION, NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IDENTITY, CITIZENSHIP AND NATIONAL REGISTER FOR CITIZENS (NRC). They should not be segregated and kept confined within the boundaries of special schools and denied equity in the society. Over two decades had passed since the time when the Statement was released, and a lot of work was done in the field of inclusive education. “Accountability, neoliberalism, competition between schools are some other barriers that make it difficult to fully implement the concept of inclusive education”, he stressed. In the present era where right to education is an essential component of right to life, these children should get equal opportunities and rights and inclusive education is one of those first steps towards lifting the barriers of segregation of the children with disabilities from the mainstream education system. The inclusion of students with disabilities in the general education setting is now the norm rather than the exception. There are several barriers which hinder the effective implementation of Inclusive Education policies in India. Web. Moreover, the authors referenced a variety of research studies published within 5 years of the time when the article under review was published. The study was published in 2002 in Exceptional Children, the peer-reviewed journal that is also known to serve as the official periodical for the Council for Exceptional Children, as well as a renowned member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The participants were grouped according to their age and gender; there were three groups in total – the first group included children aged 9 to 13 of both sexes, the second group had only male students of 14 to 16 years, and the third group was comprised of 4 female students of 9 to 14 years and one male of 14 years (Pivik et al., 2002). In that way, the students with learning or cognitive disabilities and hearing or eyesight problems were not represented at all. Special Educational Needs' As 'Barriers' to Inclusion Mitller (2000) sees the identication of children with special educational needs as labeling and discriminatory. The results of their study indicated that without communication between general and special educators, a student may appear to have adequate skills in the special education room, but be deficit in specific skills crucial to the inclusive environment. The findings of several different authors recognize a set of main barriers to inclusive education – administrative, attitudinal, and physical. Inclusive Education Project by Save the Children (Grimes, 2010) are particularly useful inclusive education assessment tools, but other indicator sets and tools are also available. All children in Australia have the right to an inclusive education. - A current lack of understanding of what inclusive education means - Some definitions may address the inclusion of only one group. IvyPanda. Barriers and facilitators to inclusive education. Centre for International Education. The solutions. ensure the integrity of our platform while keeping your private information safe. August 11, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/barriers-and-facilitators-to-inclusive-education/. The very early recommendations for sending children with disabilities to mainstream schools can be traced back to 1944 in the Sargent Report followed by the setting up of the Kothari Commission in 1964. (n 5). Consequently, these are all challenging barriers. However, the inclusion of tables presenting the organized demographics of the participants, and their structured responses could improve the visual comprehensiveness of the results. In addition, due to the diversity and complexity of the problem of inclusion driven by the versatile nature of factors that could potentially trigger it, it could be useful to focus on barriers typical for a certain community. Curriculum: A rigid curriculum that does not allow for experimentation or the use of different teaching methods can be an enormous barrier to inclusion. For a long time, the children with disabilities have been segregated and kept deprived of their right. In the area of Chicago, there are many inclusive schools that report facing such challenges as the lack of training for the teachers, and absence of professional consult when needed, funding limitations, and attitudinal problems driven by uneridentification. When you’re just starting out with inclusion, the first steps can be the toughest. A thoughtful review of the results was provided with the emphasis to the needs of the students with disabilities, the limitations they face, and the disadvantages they experience due to the existing challenges. Pivik, J., Maccomas, J., & LaFlamme, M. (2002). Accountability, neoliberalism, competition between educational centers are some other barriers that make it difficult to fully implement the concept of inclusive education in the mainstream system. [5] Katharine Giffard-Lindsay, Transitions &Equity Consortium for Research on Educational Access and University of Sussex. [7] Giffard-Lindsay, Consortium for Research on Educational Access and University of Sussex. Didactical barriers where learning is inflexible and teachers lack the skills to facilitate inclusive education; Financial barriers relating to the cost of devices, hardware and software. Accountability, neoliberalism, competition between educational centers are some other barriers that make it difficult to fully implement the concept of inclusive education in the mainstream system. In a truly inclusive setting, every child feels safe and has a sense of belonging. These can create a barrier for some students to simply enter the school building or classroom. While inclusive education is all about embracing all, making a commitment to do whatever it takes to …show more content… Most of the barriers impacting on learner’s development came as a results of socio-economic deprivation consequently leaving most South Africans as victims of exclusion in education. In the middle of the 1990s, at an assembly attended by the representatives of 92 governments and 25 international organizations held in Salamanca, Spain, the authorities issued a statement acknowledging the need for inclusive education worldwide and recognizing it as a pressing issue in need for solutions (Miles, 2000). By now you know that inclusion is here to stay. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Persons with Disabilities 2008 also stresses on the human rights of persons with disabilities and places obligations on the states to promote, protect and ensure these rights and also take measures for their successful implementation and monitoring. They might have certain concerns regarding taking responsibilities of Children with disabilities due to lack of teachers training, inadequate infrastructure, lack of trained staff, the extra care and supervision that these children have to be provided with, negative attitude of peers and parents of children without disabilities, social bias etc. Both students with and without special needs can succeed in the inclusive classroom and the learning process is more engaged for all students. On coming across several literatures on this subject, some of the main barriers that have come into my focus are the Attitudinal Barriers, Financial Barriers, Physical Barriers and the Policy barriers. ISBN 978 0 955951 97 8 Full text available as: [4] Prachi Salve and Swagata Yadavar, ‘Why 12.1 Mn “divyaang” Indians Are Illiterate’ (2017). In the community selected for the proposed research, that is Chicago, Illinois, there are many schools that made public their stories and experiences with tackling the issues of inclusion. inclusive education and the study considers some ways in which schools can advance their practice in this aspect. Another set of barriers named by the children involved intentional and unintentional attitudinal barriers that resulted in isolation and alienation of the children expressed in mocking and bullying, as well as the general lack of knowledge of communication with people with disabilities among their teachers and peers. Inclusive education values diversity and the unique contributions each student brings to the classroom. According to the findings of Pivik et al. Knocking Down Barriers to Inclusion By now you know that inclusion is here to stay. We begin to look beyond typical ways of becoming valued members of the community, and in doing so, begin to realize the achievable goal of providing all children with an authentic sense of belonging." Her areas of interest are Corporate and Commercial laws and Constitutional Law. Technologies LLC, a company registered in Wyoming, USA. Inclusive education values diversity and the unique contributions each student brings to the classroom. Dulung Sengupta is currently pursuing her LLM from the National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata. This Act also mandates the appropriate government to take adequate measures for protecting the persons with disabilities from being victims of any torture, cruelty, inhuman or degrading treatment. The chance that he or she will attend a school is very slim. - A current lack of understanding of what inclusive education means - Some definitions may address the inclusion of only one group. Klich, S. (2017). Barriers to learning and development can occur within all aspects of the system and curriculum, the centre of learning, the education system, and the broader social context. It contains thousands of paper examples on a wide variety of topics, all donated by helpful students. The article is written in an understandable manner and provides a solid basis explaining the rationale for the research and the previous findings and vision of the explored subject. He says,"I think the concept of special educational BARRIERS AND BENEFITS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION SUBMITTEDTO Ms. VARUNADAHIYA (Assistant professor) 2. Stigmatization and discrimination denies people with disabilities their dignity and potential. (2020, August 11). The themes covered in the introduction to this study included the definition of people with disabilities, the concept of barriers to inclusive education, the common attitudes toward the provision of education to such individuals and the problems they typically face, the solutions implemented in the past in order to address the existing problems, and the challenges educators and institutions have to handle when working with people with disabilities integrated into the average learning environments. Worldwide, these children are among the most likely to be out of school. An Inclusion revolution: A Chicago school’s journey. These children should also have access to equal opportunities to learn in mainstream schools with other children and be entitled to quality education and facilities. Physical barriers. The researchers purposely sampled two focus groups of participants comprised of students with disabilities attending the inclusive schools. Examples of potential barriers to learning and development are provided in Chapter Two. You can use them for inspiration, an insight into a particular topic, a handy source of reference, or even just as a template of a certain type of paper. While inclusive education is all about embracing all, making a commitment to do whatever it takes to …show more content… Most of the barriers impacting on learner’s development came as a results of socio-economic deprivation consequently leaving most South Africans as victims of exclusion in education. Ainscow sees the very concept of 'special educational needs' as 'barriers' to inclusion. As a result, it made sense to research and overview the kind of progress that has been made since the initiation of the reform in order to identify which aspects of the issue were addressed and which challenges still persist. Attitudes – In a school system where there isn’t a lot of understanding and knowledge regarding Down syndrome, teachers may fear and resist change. The aim of this study is to give voice to three local organisations of people with disability and for people with disability in Spain, Lithuania and Greece, discussing the EU policy for inclusive education in relation to personal experiences and national policies, as part of the Able’20 European project. The education of students with special needs is no longer the responsibility of just special education teachers. It has given an impetus to the vision regarding inclusive education of Children with Special needs as it lays emphasis on the fact that without such inclusion, the very objective of Universalization of Elementary Education cannot be fulfilled. In particular, the researcher outlined their research question as an exploration of the extent to which the present special education efforts match the needs of students with disabilities and meet the expected standards of inclusion at schools and the understanding of what this phenomenon is anticipated to represent in terms of the professional participation and the preparedness of the educational facilities (Pivik, Mccomas, & Laflamme, 2002). Inclusive Education is a relatively new concept, having gained international attention in 2000, following the Education for All campaign. Inclusion is among the most controversial topics in modern education. All of the children were affected either by cerebral palsy or spina bifida. There should be an increased effort to universalize education irrespective of any disabilities suffered by the child. The Salamanca Statement maintained that the right to education was fundamental for every child on the planet, and thus the educators should work in agreement with the statement and achieve favorable inclusive conditions at schools matching all the special needs some groups of learners may have (Miles, 2000). Connolly, C. (2017). Barriers and Facilitators to Inclusive Education, Patients with Learning Disabilities: Quality Care, Special Education, Its History and Current Issues, Report: Inclusion on rise in nation’s schools, An Inclusion revolution: A Chicago school’s journey, Inclusive Education: Barriers and Facilitators, Behavioural brand loyalty requires deep attitudinal attachment to the brand, Inclusive Education Factors and Challenges, Barriers and Facilitators of Workplace Learning, Inclusive Education Program in Saudi Arabia, Inclusive Education and the Cultural Representation of Disability, The Inclusive Education Program in the UAE, Making Inclusion Work in General Education Classroom, Special Education Strategies: Research Process, Talent-Oriented Therapy: Patients with Learning Disabilities, Post-School Outcomes of Students With Disabilities, Involving Adults With Autism Plus Learning Disability. Since there are barriers to inclusion at school in the USA, it would make sense to explore this problem deeper and establish the kinds of barriers to inclusive education that can occur. Report: Inclusion on rise in nation’s schools. These people play a pivotal role in the implementation process as they interact with the children with disabilities on a regular basis and form their immediate surroundings. Barriers to inclusion. [2] Sumita Chakraborti-Ghosh, ‘PP 53-62 Journal of Educational System V1 • I1 •’, vol 1 (2017) accessed 1 February 2019. How do the existing barriers impact the current learners with disabilities in this community. "When inclusive education is fully embraced, we abandon the idea tha... t children have to become 'normal' in order to contribute to the world. Inclusion is among the most controversial topics in modern education. These barriers prevent learners with special needs from functioning successfully as members of their communities and as learners. The topic of this study is highly important as in the contemporary society the issues of inclusion and diversity are some of the most frequently discussed subjects. The sets of problems named by each group were similar. The quality, causes, and outcomes of such barriers also require exploration. IvyPanda. Inclusion – Is it working? Fully inclusive classrooms have students across the educational and developmental spectrum, ranging from typically developing students to severe and profoundly disabled students. We will write a custom Essay on Barriers and Facilitators to Inclusive Education specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page. Looking back over the barriers that educators identified, we can see that this wish list of supports aligns with teachers’ fears and misconceptions and provides useful paths forward. One of the final barriers associated with inclusion education is a lack of communication among administrators, teachers, specialists, staff, parents, and students. The primary limitation of this study is its rather small sample that was comprised of only 15 students. Although Inclusive Education is a priority for the Indian Government and there have been legislations, programmes, etc to make it successful, there is still a very big gap between the policies and their implementation. Research helps to tell us about what climate is like in schools and ways to engage effectively in LGBTQ2+-inclusive education. Both students with and without special needs can succeed in the inclusive classroom and the learning process is more engaged for all students. Addressing these barriers that are affecting access to a quality education and school experience brings benefits for all children – with and without disabilities. Although Inclusive Education is a priority for the Indian Government and there have been legislations, programmes, etc to make it successful, there is still a very big gap between the policies and their implementation. Some are obvious — like not having a school to go to — while others are more subtle, like the teacher at the school not having had the training needed to help children learn effectively. Barriers of Inclusive Education in Bangladesh Making Inclusion a Reality. The findings of several different authors recognize a set of main barriers to inclusive education – administrative, attitudinal, and physical. They have their right to live and have access to education. Although economic challenges are a universal barrier to accessing education, there is an argument to be made that households with children with disabilities are particularly vulnerable to poverty. Heasley, S. (2014). Barriers to Inclusive Education. Mob Lynching in India: Is it time to amend the law. The education which has been referred should be at par with the education which is received by the children without disabilities. 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